Biodiveristy of Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park

   

Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park is situated in the center of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Due to biodiversity and vulnerableecoregion is included in the 35 priority ecoregions of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and  34 hot spot list of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Bprjomi-Kharagauli Protected areas are located on the verge of the Caucasus and Anatila hot spots. From 56 priority areas of the Caucasus Ecoregion Conservation plan one of the (№27) important parts are – Protected Areas of Georgia.

The territory of the park is rich in relict, endemic, rare flora and fauna vulnerable species. There are 63 species of mammals on the territory, eleven of them are tha Caucasus endemics and 8 species are included in the “Red List” of Georgia. There are 217 species of migratory and nesting birds, 13 of them belong to the “Red List” Georgia.

Flora

The biodiversity of flora in Borjomi-Kharaguli National Park is due to botanical and geographical (at thd boarder of Colhis, Central Caucasus, Asia-Minorand Near East) location. 75% of the park territory is covered with unimpaired forests. Here are unique, relict fragments of Colchis forests. There are fine fir-groves, pine groves and abies gatheredin the protected area. These sections of the forest are spread within 1400-1800 meters above the sea level.From broad-leaved in the lower zone the Georgian oak and hornbeam prevail, in the upper zone – beech; Chestnut included in the :Red list: of Georgia is common. Woody species create multiple combination in different zones and habitats. There are also mixed forests: Spruce-fir, pine and spruce, beech-hornbeam, beech and chestnut and other. There are Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Rowan (Sorbustorminalis), maple (Acer laetum, A. campestre), rarely Hyrcanic maple (A.hyrcanum) and sub-alpine crooked birch. The subtropical understory of the park forests contain evergreen plants characteristic for typical Colchis landscape: Rhododendron, Azalea, Cherr laurel, Holly also Colchis Ivy and others.

About a quarter of the park is covered with subalpine and alpine cereal crops and varios grasses, and the Caucasian Rhododendorn is spread on a fairly large areas.

The species of plants spread in Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park are more than 1,200.

From the plant species included in the “Red List” of Georgia apart from chestnut, there are Ostrya   (Ostryacarpinifolia), Colchis bladdernut (Staphyleacolchica), Oriental Oak (Quercusmacranthera) and wych elm (Ulmusglabra).

Notable relict species are

Imeretian buckthorn, Yew, Pontine, Caucasian rhododendron, cherry laurel, holly, Colchis Ivy and others.

The Caucasian endemic species

 Oriental spruce, the Caucasian fir and Caucasian pine.

Fauna

Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park has a diverse fauna. Here 64 species of mammals are recorded, 11 of them are the Caucasian endemic, and 8 species are included in the “Red List” Goergia. From the main species of the wildlife here are represented: red deer, chamois, roe deer, brown bear, wolf, lynx. In the forest of Borjomi-Kharagauli Protected areas there are also: boar, roe deer, wolf, wild cat. 20 species of bats are recorded in Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park.

There are 217 species of migrating and nesting birds, among them 13 species are included in the “Red List” of Georgia. The important habitats in the territory of the park are grouse (Tetraomlokosieviewiczi) and Caspian Snowcock (Tetraogaluscaucasica).

30 species of reptiles inhabit in humid forests of protected area, among then 3 species are the West Caucasian endemic and 2 species are included in the “Red List” of Georgia.

A numerous population of river trout   (Salmofariotrutta)   is maintained in the mountain rivers.

From rare and endangered species included in the “Red List” of Georgia in the protected areas are preserved such species of large mammals as: Caucasian red deer, brown bear, lynx, Caucasian chamois, European barbastelle, greater noctule bat, Caucasian squirrel and others. From birds there are: white-tailed eagle, vulture, golden eagle, Levant sparrowhawk, long-legged buzzard, Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian grouse and others.

Endemic species

The Caucasian salamander, Caucasian Parsley Frog, Adjarian lizard, Caucasian viper and others.

 

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